Categories of stamping forming
Many deformation processes can be done by stamping, the basic processes of the stamping can be divided into two kinds: cutting and forming.
Cutting is a shearing process that one part of the blank is cut from the other. It mainly includes blanking, punching, trimming, parting and shaving, where punching and blanking are the most widely used. Forming is a process that one part of the blank has some displacement from the other. It mainly includes deep drawing, bending, local forming, building, flanging, necking, sizing and spinning.
In substance, stamping forming is such that the plastic deformation occur in the deformation zone of the stamping blank caused by the external force. The stress state and deformation characteristic of the deformation zone are the basic factors to decide the properties of the stamping forming. Based on the stress state and deformation characteristics of the deformation zone, the forming methods can be divided into several categories with the same forming properties and be studied systematically.
The deformation zone in almost all types of stamping forming is in the plane stress state. Usually there is no force or only small force applied on the blank surface. When is assumed that the stress perpendicular to the blank surface equals to zero, two principal stresses perpendicular to each other and act on the blank surface produce the plastic deformation of the material. Due to the small thickness of the blank, it is assumed approximately the two principal stresses distribute uniformly along the thickness direction. Based on this analysis, the stress state and the deformation characteristics of the deformation zone in all kinds of stamping forming can be denoted by the points in the coordinates of the plane principal stresses and the coordinates of the corresponding plane principal strains.
Raw material for stamping forming
There are a lot of raw materials used in stamping forming, and the properties of these materials may have large difference. The stamping forming can be succeeded only by determining the stamping method, the forming parameters and the die structures according to the properties and characteristics of the raw materials. The deformation of the blank during stamping forming has been investigated quite thoroughly. The relationships between the material properties decided by the chemistry component and structure of the material and the stamping forming has been established clearly. Not only the proper material can be selected based on the working condition and usage demand, but also the new material can be developed according to the demands of the blank properties during processing the stamping part. This is an important domain in stamping forming research. The research on the material properties for stamping forming is as follows:
1. Definition of the stamping property of the material.
2. Method to judge the stamping property of the material, find parameters to express the definitely material property of the stamping forming, establish the relationship between the property parameters and the practical stamping forming, and investigate the testing methods of the property parameters.
3. Establish the relationship among the chemical component, structure, manufacturing process and stamping property.
The raw materials for stamping forming mainly include various metals and nonmetal plate. Sheet metal includes both ferrous and nonferrous metals. Although a lot of sheet metals are used in stamping forming, the most widely used materials are steel, stainless steel, aluminum alloy and various composite metal plates.
Due to the characteristics of stamping deformation and mechanics mentioned above, the stamping technique is different form the bulk metal forming:
1. The importance or the strength and rigidity of the die in stamping forming is less than that in bulk forming because the blank can be formed without applying large pressure per unit area on its surface. Instead, the techniques of the simple stamping die and the pneumatic and hydraulic forming are developed.
2. Due to the plane stress or simple strain state in comparison with bulk forming, more research on deformation or force and power parameters has been done. Stamping forming can be performed by more reasonable scientific methods. Based on the real time measurement and analysis on the sheet metal properties and stamping parameters, by means of computer and some modern testing apparatus, research on the intellectualized control of stamping process is also in proceeding.
3. It is shown that there is a close relationship between stamping forming and raw material. The research on the properties of the stamping forming, that is, forming ability and shape stability, has become a key point in stamping technology development, but also enhances the manufacturing technique of iron and steel industry, and provides a reliable foundation for increasing sheet metal quality.
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