Winkling that occurs in the stamping of tapered square cups and stepped rectangular cups is investigated. A common characteristic of these two types of wrinkly is that the wrinkles are found at the draw wall that is relatively unsupported. In the stamping of a tapered square cup, the effect of process parameters, such as the die gap and blank-holder force, on the occurrence of wrinkling is examined using finite-element simulations. The simulation results show that the larger the die gap, the more severe is the wrinkling, and such wrinkly cannot be suppressed by increasing the blank-holder force. In the analysis if wrinkling that occurred in the stamping of a stepped rectangular cup, an actual production part that has a similar type of geometry was examined. The winkleles found at the draw wall are attributed to the unbalanced stretching of the sheet metal between the punch head and the step edge. An optimum die design for the purpose of eliminating the wrinkles is determined using finite-element analysis. The good agreement between the simulation results and those observed in the wrinkle-free production part validates the accuracy of the finite-element analysis, and demonstrates the advantage of using finite-element analysis for stamping die design.
Wrinkling is one od the major defects that occur in the sheet metal forming process. For both functional and visual reasons, wrinkles are usually not acceptable in a finished part. There are three types of wrinkle which frequently occur in the sheet metal forming process: flange wrinkling, wall wrinkling, and elastic buckling of the undeformed area owing to residual elastic compressive stresses. In the forming operation of stamping a complex shape, draw-wall wrinkling means the occurrence of wrinkles in the die cavity. Since the sheet metal in the wall area is relatively unsupported by the tool, the elimination of wall wrinkles is more difficult than the suppresion of flange wrinkles. It is well known that additional stretching of the material in the unsupported wall area may prevent wrinkling, and this can be achineved in practice by increasing the blank-holder force; bu the application of excessive tensile stresses leads to failure by tearing. Hence, the blank-holder force must lie within a narrow range, above that necessary to suppress wrinkles on the one hand, and below that which produces fracture on the other. This narrow range of blank-holder force is difficult to determine. For wrinkles occurring in the central area of a stamped part with a complex shape, a workable range of blank-holder force does not even exist.
Wrinkling could occur having two circumferential waves according to their theoretical analysis, whereas the experimental results indicated four to six wrinkles.
These efforts are focused on the wrinkling problems associated with the forming operations of simple shapes only, such as a circular cup. In the early 1990s, the successful application of the 3D dynamic/explicit finite-element method to the sheet metal forming process made it possible to analyse the wrinkling problem involved in stamping complex shapes. In the present study, the 3D finite-element method was employed to analyse the effects of the process parameters on the metal flow causing wrinkles at the draw wall in the stamping of a tapered square cup, and of a stepped rectangular part.
A tapered square cup, has an inclined draw wall on each side of the cup, similar to that existing in a conical cup. During the stamping process, the sheet metal on the draw wall is relatively unsupported, and is therefore prone to wrinkling. In the present study, the effect of various process parameters on the wrinkling was investigated. In the case of a stepped rectangular part, another type of wrinkling is observed. In order to estimate the effectiveness of the analysis, and actual production part with stepped geometry was examined in the present study. The cause of the wrinklying was determined using finite-element analysis, and an optimum die design was proposed to eliminate the wrinkles. The die design obtained from finite-element analysis was validated by observations on an actual production part.
2. Finite-Element Model
The tooling geometry, including the punch, stamping die and blank-holder, were designed using the CAD program PRO/ENGINEER. Both the 3-node and 4-node shell elements were adopted to generate the mesh systems for the above tooling using the same CAD program. For the finite-element simulation, the tooling is considered to the rigid, and th corresponding meshes are used only to define the tooling geometry and are not for stress analysis. The same CAD program using 4-node shell elements was employed to construct the mesh system for the sheet-blank. Owing to the symmetric conditions, only a quarter of the square cup is analysed. In the simulation, the sheet blank is put on the blank-holder and the die is moved down to clamp the sheet blank against the blank-holder. The punch is then moved up to draw the sheet metal into the die cavity.
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